Murder of Hannah Clarke: coercive control will be criminalized in the QLD: Annastacia Palaszczuk

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1. History of violence outside the family by the perpetrator

Any assault or attempted assault on a person who is not, or has not been, in an intimate relationship with the perpetrator.

2. History of domestic violence

Any actual, attempted, or threatened abuse/mistreatment (physical, emotional, psychological, financial, sexual, etc.) of a person who had or is in an intimate relationship with the perpetrator. This incident did not necessarily result in charges or convictions

3. Previous threats to kill the victim

Any comments made to the victim, or others, that were intended to instill fear for the safety of the victim’s life. These comments could have been delivered verbally, in letter form, or left on an answering machine.

The level of explicitness of threats can range from “I’m going to kill you” to “You’re going to pay for what you did” or “If I can’t get you, then no one can” or “I’m going for you. to take.’

4. Previous threats with a weapon

Any incident in which the perpetrator threatened to use a weapon (eg, gun, knife, etc.) or other object intended to be used as a weapon (eg, bat, branch, a garden tool, a vehicle, etc.) with the aim of instilling fear in the victim.

5. Previous assault with a weapon

Any assault or attempted assault on the victim in which a weapon (eg, gun, knife, etc.) or other object intended to be used as a weapon (eg, bat, branch, tool garden, vehicle, etc.) was used.

6. Previous threats of suicide by the perpetrator

Any recent act or comment by the author within the past six months that was intended to convey the idea or intent of the author to commit suicide, even if the act or comment was not taken seriously .

These comments could have been made verbally, or delivered as a letter, or left on an answering machine.

7. Previous suicide attempts by the perpetrator

Any recent suicidal behavior (e.g. swallowing pills, holding a knife to throat, etc.), even if the behavior was not taken seriously or did not require arrest, medical attention or psychiatric internment.

8. Previous attempts to isolate the victim

Any non-physical behavior, whether successful or not, that was intended to keep the victim from socializing with other people.

The perpetrator could have used a variety of psychological tactics (for example, guilt trips) to discourage the victim from socializing with family, friends or other acquaintances in the community (for example, “if you’re leaving, then don’t even think not to come back” or “I never like your parents coming” or “I’m leaving if you invite your friends here”)

9. Controls most or all of the victim’s daily activities

Any actual or attempted behavior on the part of the perpetrator, whether successful or not, intended to exert full power over the victim.

For example, when the victim was allowed out in public, the abuser would ask her where she was at all times and who she was with.

Another example might include not allowing the victim to have control over their finances (e.g. giving them an allowance, not letting them get a job.)

10. Hostage-taking and/or prior sequestration

Any actual or attempted behavior, successful or unsuccessful, in which the perpetrator physically attempted to limit the victim’s mobility.

For example, any incident of forcible confinement (eg locking the victim in a room) or forbidding the victim to use the telephone.

Attempts to deny access to transportation should also be included (eg, taking or hiding car keys).

The abuser may have used violence (eg grabbing, hitting, etc.) to gain compliance or may have been passive (eg, stood in the way of an exit).

11. Prior forced sexual acts and/or assaults during sexual intercourse

Any actual behavior, attempted or threatened, successful or unsuccessful, used to engage the victim in sexual acts (of any kind) against the victim’s will.

Or any assault on the victim, whatever the nature (for example, biting, scratching, punching, choking, etc.), during any sexual act.

12. Disputes regarding custody or access to children

Any dispute regarding the custody, contact, primary care or control of children, including formal legal proceedings or any third party with knowledge of such arguments.

13. Prior Destruction or Deprivation of the Victim’s Property

Any incident in which the perpetrator intended to damage any form of property owned, or partially owned, by the victim or previously owned by the perpetrator.

This could include cutting tires from the car the victim is using. It can also be breaking windows or throwing objects at a place of residence

14. Past violence against pets

Any action directed at a pet of the victim, or a former pet of the abuser, with the intent to cause distress to the victim or instill fear in the victim. It can vary in severity, from killing the victim’s pet to kidnapping or torturing it.

15. Previous assault on victim during pregnancy

Any form of actual or attempted physical violence ranging in severity from pushing or slapping in the face to punching or kicking the victim in the stomach during pregnancy.

16. Victim suffocated/strangled in the past

Any attempt (regardless of the incident leading to death) to strangle the victim. The attacker could have used various things to accomplish this task (e.g. hands, arms, rope, etc.)

17. Abuser was abused and/or witnessed domestic violence as a child

As a child/adolescent, the abuser was victimized and/or exposed to actual, attempted or threatened domestic violence/abuse/mistreatment.

18. Escalation of Violence

The abuse/mistreatment (physical, psychological, emotional, sexual, etc.) inflicted on the victim by the perpetrator increased in frequency and/or severity.

For example, this may be evidenced by more regular trips for medical care or by an increase in complaints of abuse to/by family, friends or other acquaintances.

19. Obsessive behavior displayed by the abuser

Any action or behavior by the abuser that indicates intense concern for the victim.

For example, harassment, such as following the victim, spying on the victim, making repeated phone calls to the victim or offering excessive gifts, etc.

20. Unemployed Author

Employed means having full or near full-time employment (including self-employment). By unemployed, we mean frequent job changes or long periods without a source of income.

21. Victim and abuser living in a common-law relationship

The victim and the aggressor lived together.

22. Presence of stepchildren in the home

All children who are not biologically related to the abuser.

23. Extreme minimization and/or denial of domestic violence history

At some point, the abuser has been confronted, either by the victim or by a family member, friend or other acquaintance, and the abuser has shown an unwillingness to end the aggressive behavior or follow /comply with any form of treatment.

Either the abuser denied several or all past assaults, denied personal responsibility for the assaults (i.e. blamed the victim), or denied the serious consequences of the assault (e.g. “she didn’t ‘wasn’t really hurt’).

24. Actual or imminent separation

The partner wanted to end the relationship. Either the aggressor was separated from the victim but wanted to renew the relationship.

Or there has been a sudden and/or recent separation. Or the victim had contacted a lawyer and was asking for a separation and/or a divorce.

25. Excessive alcohol and/or drug use by the abuser

Over the past year, substance abuse that appeared to be characteristic of the abuser’s substance dependence and/or addiction.

An increase in drinking pattern and/or change in character or behavior directly related to alcohol and/or drug use may indicate excessive drinking by the abuser.

For example, people have described the abuser as constantly drunk or claim that they have never seen him without a beer in hand.

26. Depression – in the opinion of family/friend/acquaintance – author

According to any family, friends or acquaintances, the attacker presented symptoms characteristic of depression.

27. Depression – diagnosed by a professional – author

A diagnosis of depression by any mental health professional, whether or not the abuser received treatment.

28. Other mental health or psychiatric problems – author

For example: psychosis, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, mania; obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.

29. Access or possession of firearms

The assailant has stored firearms at his place of residence, his place of work or another place nearby (for example, a friend’s house or a shooting range).

30. New partner in the victim’s life

There was a new intimate partner in the victim’s life or the perpetrator perceived that there was a new intimate partner in the victim’s life.

31. Failure to comply with authority – perpetrator

Abuser violated family, civil or criminal court orders, parole orders, community supervision orders, or “no contact” orders, etc.

32. Perpetrator exposed to/witnessed suicidal behavior in family of origin

As a child or adolescent, the abuser was exposed to and/or witnessed any actual, attempted or threatened form of suicidal behavior in their family, or someone close to the abuser attempted or is committed suicide.

33. After risk assessment, the aggressor was granted access to the victim

After a formal or informal risk assessment, the abuser still had access to the victim.

34. Young couple

The victim and perpetrator were between 15 and 24 years old.

35. Sexual Jealousy – author

The abuser continually accuses the victim of infidelity, interrogates them repeatedly, searches for evidence, tests the victim’s loyalty, and sometimes stalks them.

36. Misogynistic attitudes – author

Hate or have a strong prejudice against women. This attitude can be expressed overtly in hate speech, or can be more subtle with beliefs that women are only good for domestic work or that all women are “whores”.

37. Couple age disparity

Women in an intimate relationship with a much older or younger partner. The gap is usually nine years or more.

38. Intuitive feeling of fear of the aggressor in the victim

The victim is the one who knows the aggressor best and can accurately assess his level of risk.

If the woman reveals to anyone her fear that the abuser will harm herself or her children, for example statements such as “I fear for my life”, “I think he is going to harm me harm”, “I must protect my children”, this is a sure indication of a serious risk.

39. Abuser threatened and/or harmed children

Any actual, attempted, or threatened abuse/mistreatment (physical, emotional, psychological, financial, sexual, etc.) of children in the family.

Source: Ontario Domestic Violence Death Review Committee

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